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Annotation style and terminology

An abstract is a summary of the main ideas and results of the scientific work presented in the article. Annotation style should be clear, concise and objective, without subjective or value judgments.

It is important to strictly follow the instructions for authors (format, word limit, font size/style) provided by the journal for which the scientific work is being written.

Most journals allow 200Ц300 words for abstracts, and it is wise to limit yourself to this limit. Therefore, every word in the annotation matters. Although some authors prefer to write the abstract first and then the body of the paper, it is recommended to write it after writing the body of the paper to maintain accuracy and consistency, and thus ensure consistency with the title of the text. When creating an abstract, you must avoid passive voice, abbreviations, quote references, and insert tables and figures.

It is important to ensure that the message, focus and novelty of the text are not compromised, that the rationale for the study and the basis of the conclusions are clear, and that the abstract is consistent with the body of the article. This is especially important when resubmitting your article, modified after consideration of the reviewer`s comments, since changes made to the main (revised) text of the article must be reflected in the abstract.

It may be worth seeking the opinion of an impartial colleague about the content of the abstract. In this way, an "informal" review can be carried out. Relevant "key words" (three to ten words or phrases) should follow the abstract. These keywords must be different from the words in the main title (the title words are used automatically to index the article), they can be variations of terms/phrases used in the title, or words from the abstract and body text.

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